Page 49 - Experience Based Co-design - a toolkit for Australia
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      o Examples of what to observe include:
§ How easy or difficult it is for patients to find their way around the
§ How long patients have to wait to be seen
§ How patients are treated by members of staff
§ What questions patients ask
§ What forms patients are asked to fill in
§ How many staff members patients interact with.
o Shadowing is most useful for assessing variability. You can learn a lot by shadowing a small number of people carefully selected to represent the extremes of patients, conditions and/or staff. Identify extreme examples (that challenge the service elements you are exploring) alongside a few ‘average’ ones. List the types of people you should shadow to answer your questions.
How many people do you need to shadow?
o Determine the minimum number of people you need to shadow by assuming you will need 2-3 of each extreme example. Note: it is better to keep numbers small and focus on the quality and depth of shadowing sessions.
How will you make records and document your results?
o List the recording and documentation options and develop a recording template.
§ Take detailed notes to record what has been observed
§ Audio recording, video recording or photographs can be helpful (but
may need consent to be sought specifically for the purpose)
o Now review your outline and streamline your approach as much as possible.
2. Invite patients/staff to participate and obtain their consent
See ethics for further information.
3. Set up, carry out and document
If possible, talk to patients about their experiences of the service during or after the shadowing session.
Avoid jumping to conclusions or solutions
Keep an open mind – someone experience is their experience and their truth, even if you disagree
Use all your senses. Look out for pauses, obstacles and body language.
Ask people to show you what they do rather than tell you what they do
Focus on the meaning of service events and interactions for them, and explore what they meant by their own behaviours. Use non-specific open-ended questions such as ‘what was going on for you at that moment?’ and ‘what did it mean for you to do that/act that way?’
Ask for ideas for service improvements as appropriate
             Adapted with permission from

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